Section 7.3. Piping
Sec 7-7.2 materials, 7.3-piping-testing, 7.4-drainage-cleanouts, 7.5-venting-sizing, 7.6-7.7-potable water
(1) This Section applies to the construction and use of joints and connections, and the arrangement, protection, support and testing of piping.
7.3.2. Construction and Use of Joints
220.127.116.11. Caulked Lead Drainage Joints
(1) Every caulked lead drainage joint shall be firmly packed with oakum and tightly caulked with lead to a depth of at least 25 mm.
(2) No paint, varnish or other coating shall be applied on the lead until after the joint has been tested.
(3) Caulked lead drainage joints shall not be used except for cast iron pipe in a drainage system or venting system, or between such pipe and,
(a) other ferrous pipe,
(b) brass and copper pipe,
(c) a caulking ferrule, or
(d) a trap standard.
(4) A length of hub and spigot pipe and pipe fittings in a drainage system shall be installed with the hub at the upstream end.
18.104.22.168. Wiped Joints
(1) Wiped joints shall not be used except for sheet lead or lead pipe, or between such pipe and copper pipe or a ferrule.
(2) Every wiped joint in straight pipe shall,
(a) be made of solder,
(b) have an exposed surface on each side of the joint at least 19 mm wide, and
(c) be at least 10 mm thick at the thickest part.
(3) Every wiped flanged joint shall be reinforced with a lead flange that is at least 19 mm wide.
22.214.171.124. Screwed Joints
(1) In making a screwed joint the ends of the pipe shall be reamed or filed out to the size of the bore and all chips and cuttings shall be removed.
(2) No pipe-joint cement or paint shall be applied to the internal threads.
126.96.36.199. Solder Joints
(1) Soldered joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828, “Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings”.
188.8.131.52. Flared Joints
(1) In making a flared joint the pipe shall be expanded with a proper flaring tool.
(2) Flared joints shall not be used for hard (drawn) copper tube.
184.108.40.206. Mechanical Joints
(1) Mechanical joints shall be made with compounded elastomeric couplings or rings held by stainless steel or cast iron clamps or contained within a compression connection or groove and shoulder type mechanical coupling.
220.127.116.11. Cold-Caulked Joints
(1) Cold-caulked joints shall not be used except for bell and spigot pipe in a water system, a drainage system or a venting system.
(2) The caulking compound used in cold-caulked joints shall be applied according to the manufacturer's directions.
(3) Every cold-caulked joint in a drainage system shall be firmly packed with oakum and tightly caulked with cold caulking compound to a depth of at least 25 mm.
7.3.3. Joints and Connections
18.104.22.168. Drilled and Tapped Joints
(1) Except as provided in Sentences (2) to (4), no water distributing pipe, drainage pipe or fittings shall be drilled, tapped or swaged.
(2) A water distributing pipe may be drilled or tapped to provide for a mechanically extracted T in copper tubing of Type L or K provided that all branch connections shall be notched and dimpled to limit depth of insertion and conform to the inner contour of the main.
(3) A copper water distributing pipe of 1 in. size or larger may be mechanically swaged to permit the joining of other copper pipe of equal size.
(4) A drainage pipe or fitting may be drilled or tapped,
(a) to provide for the connection of a trap seal primer line,
(b) to connect a device designed to dispense germicidal or odour control chemicals or trap seal water to a floor drain downstream of a vacuum breaker or flush valve in a flush tube connected to a sanitary unit,
(c) to provide a hole for a branch connection to a drainage pipe, where the branch connection is made with a saddle hub as permitted by Article 22.214.171.124. and where the hole is drilled to provide a smooth clean hole of the required size and orientation, or
(d) to provide for the connection of pipe or fittings to metal or rigid plastic pipe and fittings where the pipe or fittings are thick enough to be threaded or are bossed for tapping.
(5) No pipe adaption shall be made by the use of a bushing that leaves a square edge or shoulder on the inside of the pipe or fitting.
126.96.36.199. Prohibition of Welding of Pipes and Fittings
(1) Cast iron soil pipe and fittings shall not be welded.
(2) Galvanized steel pipe and fittings shall not be welded.
188.8.131.52. Unions and Slip Joints
(1) Running thread and packing nut connections and unions with a gasket seal shall not be used downstream of a trap weir in a drainage system or in a venting system.
(2) A slip joint shall not be used,
(a) in a venting system, or
(b) in a drainage system, except to connect a fixture trap to a fixture drain in an accessible location.
184.108.40.206. Increaser or Reducer
(1) Every connection between two pipes of different size shall be made with an increaser or a reducer fitting installed so that it will permit the system to be completely drained.
220.127.116.11. Connection of Dissimilar Materials
(1) Adapters, connectors or mechanical joints used to join dissimilar materials shall be designed to accommodate the required transition.
18.104.22.168. Connection of Roof Drain to Leader
(1) Every roof drain shall be securely connected to a leader and provision shall be made for expansion.
22.214.171.124. Connection of Floor Outlet Fixtures
(1) Every pedestal urinal, floor-mounted water closet or S-trap standard shall be connected to a fixture drain by a floor flange, except that a cast iron trap standard may be caulked to a cast iron pipe.
(2) Except as provided in Sentence (3), every floor flange shall be of brass.
(3) Where cast iron or plastic pipe is used, a floor flange of the same material may be used.
(4) Every floor flange shall be securely set on a firm base and bolted to the trap flange of the fixture, and every joint shall be sealed with a natural rubber, synthetic rubber gasket, or with a closet setting compound.
(5) Where a lead water closet stub is used, the length of the stub below the floor flange shall be at least 75 mm.
126.96.36.199. Expansion and Contraction
(1) The design and installation of every piping system shall, where necessary, include means to accommodate expansion and contraction of the piping system caused by temperature change or building shrinkage.
188.8.131.52. Copper Tube
(1) Types M and DWV copper tube shall not be bent.
(2) Bends in copper tubing of soft or bending temper shall be made with tools manufactured and sized for the purpose.
184.108.40.206. Indirect Connections
(1) Where a fixture or device is indirectly connected, the connections shall be made by terminating the fixture drain above the flood level rim of a directly connected fixture to form an air break.
(2) The size of the air break shall be at least 25 mm.
7.3.4. Support of Piping
220.127.116.11. Capability of Support
(1) Piping shall be provided with support that is capable of keeping the pipe in alignment and bearing the weight of the pipe and its contents.
(2) Every floor or wall mounted water closet bowl shall be securely attached to the floor or wall by means of a flange and shall be stable.
(3) Every wall mounted fixture shall be supported so that no strain is transmitted to the piping.
18.104.22.168. Independence of Support
(1) Piping, fixtures, tanks or devices shall be supported independently of each other.
22.214.171.124. Insulation of Support
(1) Where a hanger or support for copper tube or brass or copper pipe is of a material other than brass or copper, it shall be suitably separated and electrically insulated from the pipe to prevent galvanic action.
126.96.36.199. Support for Vertical Piping
(1) Except as provided in Sentence (2), vertical piping shall be supported at its base and at the floor level of alternate storeys by rests, each of which can bear the weight of pipe that is between it and the rest above it.
(2) The maximum spacing of supports shall be 7.5 m.
188.8.131.52. Support for Horizontal Piping
(1) Nominally horizontal piping that is inside a building shall be braced to prevent swaying and buckling and to control the effects of thrust.
(2) Nominally horizontal piping shall be supported so that,
(a) galvanized iron or steel pipe is supported at intervals not exceeding,
(i) 3.75 m if the pipe size is 6 in. or more, and
(ii) 2 500 mm if the pipe size is less than 6 in.,
(b) lead pipe is supported throughout its length,
(c) cast iron pipe is supported,
(i) at or adjacent to each hub or joint,
(ii) at intervals not exceeding 3 m, and
(iii) at intervals not exceeding 1 000 mm if the pipe has mechanical joints and the length of pipe between adjacent fittings is 300 mm or less,
(d) asbestos-cement pipe is supported,
(i) at intervals not exceeding 2 000 mm or have two supports for every 4 m length of pipe, and
(ii) at intervals not exceeding 1 000 mm where the length of pipe between adjacent fittings is 300 mm or less,
(e) ABS or PVC plastic DWV pipe is supported,
(i) at intervals not exceeding 1 200 mm,
(ii) at the ends of branches,
(iii) at changes of direction or elevation, and
(iv) if the pipe is a fixture drain that is more than 1 000 mm in length, as close as possible to the trap,
(f) plastic water pipe is supported at intervals not exceeding 1 000 mm,
(g) copper tube and copper and brass pipe is supported at intervals not exceeding,
(i) 3 m if the tube or pipe is hard temper and larger than 1 in. in size,
(ii) 2 500 mm if the tube or pipe is hard temper and 1 in. in size or less, and
(iii) 2 500 mm if the tube is soft temper,
(h) aluminum DWV pipe is supported,
(i) at intervals not greater than 3 m,
(ii) at both sides of all joints,
(iii) at all branch ends,
(iv) at all points where there is a change in direction, and
(v) as close to all traps as possible,
(i) supports and hangers for aluminum DWV pipe shall have a broad support base and shall be free of burrs and rough edges to prevent abrasion of the pipe,
(j) where joints in the piping are less rigid than the pipe, the support points shall be selected so as to minimize the shear and bending forces imposed on the joints,
(k) PE/AL/PE or PEX/AL/PEX composite pipe is supported at intervals not exceeding 1 000 mm, and
(l) PP-R plastic pipe is supported,
(i) at intervals not exceeding 1 000 mm,
(ii) at the end of branches, and
(iii) at changes of direction and elevation.
(3) Where plastic pipe or a composite pipe incorporating a plastic component is installed,
(a) the pipe shall be aligned without added strain on the piping,
(b) the pipe shall not be bent or pulled into position after being welded or joined, and
(c) hangers shall not compress, cut or abrade the pipe.
(5) Where hangers are used to support nominally horizontal piping they shall be,
(a) hangers with metal rods of not less than,
(i) 6 mm diam for supporting pipe 2 in. or less in size,
(ii) 8 mm diam for supporting pipe 4 in. or less in size, and
(iii) 13 mm diam for supporting pipe over 4 in. in size, or
(b) solid or perforated metal straps not less than,
(i) 0.6 mm nominal thickness, 12 mm wide for pipe 2 in. or less in size, and
(ii) 0.8 mm nominal thickness, 18 mm wide for pipe 4 in. or less in size.
(6) Where a hanger is attached to concrete or masonry, it shall be fastened by metal or expansion-type plugs that are inserted or built into the concrete or masonry.
184.108.40.206. Support for Underground Horizontal Piping
(1) Except as provided in Sentence (2), nominally horizontal piping that is underground shall be supported on a base that is firm and continuous under the whole of the pipe.
(2) Nominally horizontal piping installed underground that is not supported as described in Sentence (1) may be installed using hangers fixed to a foundation or structural slab provided that the hangers are capable of,
(a) keeping the pipe in alignment, and
(b) supporting the weight,
(i) of the pipe,
(ii) its contents, and
(iii) the fill over the pipe.
220.127.116.11. Support for Vent Pipe Above a Roof
(1) Where a vent pipe terminates above the surface of a roof it shall be supported or braced to prevent misalignment.
18.104.22.168. Compression Fittings
(1) No compression fitting connecting to plain end pipe or tube shall be used in a plumbing system unless the pipe or tube and fittings are sufficiently stayed, clamped, anchored or buttressed so as to prevent separation during normal service of the system allowing for surge pressures.
22.214.171.124. Thrust Restraint of Water Service Pipes
(1) Pipe clamps and tie-rods, thrust blocks, locked mechanical or push-on joints, mechanical joints utilizing set screw retainer glands, or other suitable means of thrust restraint shall be provided at each change of direction of a water service pipe 4 in. or more in size and at all tees, plugs, caps and bends.
(2) Backing for underground water service pipes shall be placed,
(a) between undisturbed earth and the fitting to be restrained and shall be of sufficient bearing area to provide adequate resistance to the thrust to be encountered, and
(b) so that the joints will be accessible for inspection and repair.
(3) Concrete thrust blocks shall have a minimum compressive strength of not less than 10 MPa after 28 days.
(4) Thrust blocks shall not be used to restrain vertical pipe.
7.3.5. Protection of Piping
126.96.36.199. Backfill of Pipe Trench
(1) Where piping is installed underground, the backfill shall be carefully placed and tamped to a height of 300 mm over the top of the pipe and shall be free of stones, boulders, cinders and frozen earth.
188.8.131.52. Protection of Non-Metallic Pipe
(1) Where asbestos-cement drainage pipe or vitrified clay is located less than 600 mm below a basement floor and the floor is constructed of other than 75 mm or more of concrete, the pipe shall be protected by a 75 mm layer of concrete installed above the pipe.
184.108.40.206. Isolation from Loads
(1) Where piping passes through or under a wall it shall be installed so that the wall does not bear on the pipe.
220.127.116.11. Protection from Frost
(1) Where piping may be exposed to freezing conditions it shall be protected from the effects of freezing.
18.104.22.168. Protection from Mechanical Damage
(1) Plumbing, piping and equipment exposed to mechanical damage shall be protected.
22.214.171.124. Protection from Condensation
(1) Piping used for internal leaders, which may be subject to condensation, shall be installed in a manner that limits the risk of damage to the building due to condensation.
126.96.36.199. Spatial Separation
(1) Except as permitted in Sentence (2), a buried water service pipe shall be separated from the building drain, building sewer and a private sewage disposal system, by not less than 2 440 mm measured horizontally, of undisturbed or compacted earth.
(2) The water service pipe may be closer than 2 440 mm or be placed in the same trench with the building drain or building sewer if,
(a) the following conditions are met:
(i) the bottom of the water service pipe at all points is at least 500 mm above the top of the building drain or building sewer, and
(ii) when in a common trench with the building drain or building sewer, the water service pipe is placed on a shelf at one side of the common trench,
(b) the water service pipe is constructed of a single run of pipe with no joints or fittings between the street line or source of supply on the property and the inside face of the building, or
(c) the building drain or building sewer is constructed of piping which is pressure tested in accordance with Subsection 7.3.7. at 345 kPa.
(3) A buried water service pipe shall be constructed of a single run of pipe with no joints or fittings between the street line or source of supply on the property and the inside face of the building if the water service pipe is less than 15 m from,
(a) a private sewage disposal system, or
(b) a source of pollution other than a private sewage disposal system.
7.3.6. Testing of Drainage and Venting Systems
188.8.131.52. Tests and Inspection of Drainage or Venting Systems
(1) Except in the case of an external leader, after a section of drainage system or a venting system has been roughed in, and before any fixture is installed or piping is covered, a water or an air test shall be conducted.
(2) Where a chief building official requires a final test, it shall be carried out after every fixture is installed and before any part of the drainage system or venting system is placed in operation.
(3) Where a prefabricated system is assembled off the building site in such a manner that it cannot be inspected and tested on site, off-site inspections and tests shall be conducted.
(4) Where a prefabricated system is installed as part of a drainage system and venting system, all other plumbing work shall be tested and inspected and a final test shall be carried out on the complete system.
(5) A ball test shall be carried out on a sanitary building drain, sanitary building sewer, storm building drain and a storm building sewer buried underground.
184.108.40.206. Tests of Pipes in Drainage Systems
(1) Every pipe in a drainage system, except an external leader or fixture outlet pipe, shall be capable of withstanding without leakage a water test, air test and final test.
220.127.116.11. Tests of Venting Systems
(1) Every venting system shall be capable of withstanding without leakage a water test, air test and final test.
18.104.22.168. Water Tests in Drain, Waste and Vent Systems
(1) Where a water test is made, all joints shall be tested with a water column of not less than 3 m.
(2) In making a water test,
(a) every opening except the highest shall be tightly closed with a testing plug or a test cap, and
(b) the system or the section shall be kept filled with water for 15 min.
22.214.171.124. Air Tests
(1) Where an air test is made, it shall be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions for the piping materials, and,
(a) air shall be forced into the system until a gauge pressure of 35 kPa is created, and
(b) this pressure shall be maintained for at least 15 min without a drop in pressure.
126.96.36.199. Final Tests
(1) Where a final test is made,
(a) every trap shall be filled with water,
(b) the bottom of the system being tested shall terminate at the building trap, test plug or cap,
(c) except as provided in Sentence (2), smoke from smoke-generating machines shall be forced into the system,
(d) when the smoke appears from all roof terminals they shall be closed, and
(e) a pressure equivalent to a 25 mm water column shall be maintained for 15 min without the addition of more smoke.
(2) The smoke referred to in Clauses (1)(c) and (d) may be omitted provided the roof terminals are closed and the system is subjected to an air pressure equivalent to a 25 mm water column maintained for 15 min without the addition of more air.
188.8.131.52. Ball Tests
(1) Where a ball test is made, a hard ball dense enough not to float shall be rolled through the pipe.
(2) The diameter of the ball shall be not less than 50 mm where the size of the pipe is 4 in. or more.
7.3.7. Testing of Potable Water Systems
184.108.40.206. Application of Tests
(1) After a section of a potable water system has been completed, and before it is placed in operation, a water test or an air test shall be conducted.
(2) A test may be applied to each section of the system or to the system as a whole.
(3) Where a prefabricated system is assembled off the building site in such a manner that it cannot be inspected and tested on site, off-site inspections and tests shall be conducted.
(4) Where a prefabricated system is installed as part of a water system,
(a) all other plumbing work shall be tested and inspected, and
(b) the complete system shall be pressure tested.
220.127.116.11. Tests of Potable Water Systems
(1) Every potable water system shall be capable of,
(a) withstanding without leakage a water pressure that is at least 1000 kPa for at least 1 h, or
(b) withstanding for at least 2 h without a drop in pressure an air pressure that is at least 700 kPa.
18.104.22.168. Water Tests
(1) Where a water test is made all air shall be expelled from the system before fixture control valves or faucets are closed.
(2) Potable water shall be used to test a potable water system.
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